Initially, the Protestant reformers maintained the hope that they could accomplish the reformation of the doctrine and life of the church from within, but this proved impossible because of the intransigence of the church, the polemic of the Protestant movements, or the political and… The world of the late medieval Roman Catholic Church from which the 16th-century reformers emerged was a complex one. Over the centuries the church, particularly in the office of the papacyhad become deeply involved in the political life of western Europe. These instances must be seen as exceptions, however, no matter how much they were played up by polemicists. For most people, the church continued to offer spiritual comfort.
Execution of Jan Hus in Konstanz Utraquist Hussitism was allowed there alongside the Roman Catholic confession. By the time the Reformation arrived, the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margraviate of Moravia both had majority Hussite populations for decades now.
Unrest due to the Great Schism of Western Christianity — excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and widespread concern over corruption in the Church. Hus objected to some of the practices of the Catholic Church and wanted to return the church in Bohemia and Moravia to earlier practices: Czechhaving lay people receive communion in both kinds bread and wine — that is, in Latin, communio sub utraque speciemarried priests, and eliminating indulgences and the concept of Purgatory.
Some of these, like the use of local language as the lithurgic language, were approved by the pope as early as Rise of reformist religion the 9th century. The council did not address the national tensions or the theological tensions stirred up during the previous century and could not prevent schism and the Hussite Wars in Bohemia.
He was the father of seven children, including Lucrezia and Cesare Borgia. Martin Luther and the beginning[ edit ] See also: The theses debated and criticised the Church and the papacy, but concentrated upon the selling of indulgences and doctrinal policies about purgatoryparticular judgmentand the authority of the pope.
He would later in the period — write works on the Catholic devotion to Virgin Marythe intercession of and devotion to the saints, the sacraments, mandatory clerical celibacy, monasticism, further on the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity and the law, and good works.
Magisterial Reformation Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli. These two movements quickly agreed on most issues, but some unresolved differences kept them separate.
Some followers of Zwingli believed that the Reformation was too conservative, and moved independently toward more radical positions, some of which survive among modern day Anabaptists.
Other Protestant movements grew up along lines of mysticism or humanismsometimes breaking from Rome or from the Protestants, or forming outside of the churches. After this first stage of the Reformation, following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, ScotlandHungary, Germany and elsewhere.
The Reformation foundations engaged with Augustinianism ; both Luther and Calvin thought along lines linked with the theological teachings of Augustine of Hippo. Radical Reformation The Radical Reformation was the response to what was believed to be the corruption in the Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial Protestant movement led by Martin Luther and many others.
Beginning in Germany and Switzerland in the 16th century, the Radical Reformation gave birth to many radical Protestant groups throughout Europe. In parts of Germany, Switzerland and Austria, a majority sympathized with the Radical Reformation despite intense persecution.
The Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press. From onward, religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe.
The Reformation was thus a media revolution. Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church. From there, it became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas.
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For more guidance, see Wikipedia: This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June Political situation in Germany about Religious situation in Germany and Europe about Officially, Protestantism remained an exclusively German phenomenon that concerned only the Holy Roman Empire through the late s and the s.
It did not became an international issue until the s. Inthe Reformation began with Luther and caught on instantly.In Gilded Age America, rampant inequality gave rise to a new form of Christianity, one that sought to ease the sufferings of the poor not simply by saving their souls, but by transforming society.
Notes and References 1 Tribe (Lat., tribus: the tripartite division of Romans into Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans), a social group bound by common ancestry and ties of consanguinity and affinity; a common language and territory; and characterized by a political and economic organization intermediate between small, family-based bands, and larger chiefdoms.
Russia - Religion: Although ethnic differences in Russia have long contained a religious element, the position of religious organizations and of their individual adherents has varied with political circumstances. In the 10th century Prince Vladimir I, who was converted by missionaries from Byzantium, adopted Christianity as the official religion for Russia, and for nearly 1, years.
Mazdakism. Mazdak was the chief representative of a religious and philosophical teaching called Mazdakism, which he viewed as a reformed and purified version of Zoroastrianism, although his teaching has been argued to display influences from Manichaeism as well.
Zoroastrianism was the dominant religion of Sassanid Persia, and Mazdak himself was a mobad or Zoroastrian priest, but most of the.
In recent years, it has been the last of these questions that most binds my work together. To do human ecology, like doing theology, is to pull on a tangled ball of string. You cannot unravel one loop until you've understood the network of connections. Religion is not essentially rational, mediated through ideas [orthodox theology or deistic beliefs], nor is religion essentially ethical, mediated by autonomous moral choice [Kantian moralism].
Instead religion is sui generis [unique, its own kind].