Axis initiative and Allied reaction The outbreak of war By the early part of the German dictator Adolf Hitler had become determined to invade and occupy Poland. Poland, for its part, had guarantees of French and British military support should it be attacked by Germany.
Traditionally, Americans have demonstrated an abiding concern for the well-being of the young people serving their country in the military. While the popularity of the military as an institution vacillates from one generation to the next, the American people have not wavered in their appreciation and gratitude for the men and women who go in harm's way for their country.
That gratitude was clearly evident during America's participation in the Great War. The primary conduit of public goodwill directed to service personnel in the military historically has been the Young Men's Christian Association with an unbroken service predating the Civil War.
The YMCA's unique record of service traces its volunteer work through a range of programs that have served and continue to serve the morale and well being of uniformed personnel and military family members.
Front Line Hut In its early history, YMCA programs and services were commonly referred to as "welfare" work, especially during the first world war; but the word is used in a somewhat different context today, and contemporary YMCA work with military communities is described as human services.
Its goals, however, are the same as they were during that war to help develop the spiritual, mental, and physical strength of service men and women and military families. In the years between the Civil War and the Great War, the YMCA developed and provided programs and services that addressed both the temporal and spiritual needs of American service members.
Within the armed forces, services like those offered by the YMCA were not fully developed to meet those needs and certain programs did not exist at all. The Great War marked a paradigm shift in the way military leaders conceptualized programs that address the human needs of their personnel.
Today, many of the programs, once provided by the YMCA, are institutionalized within each military service. The list of programs and services that the YMCA has conceived, developed and provided the military during the last years and which now are institutionalized on each installation is long and illustrious.
Overseas entertainment for the troops, which the YMCA had initiated during the Spanish-American War, was expanded during the first world war. Troop education was a substantial YMCA program, highly visible during the first world war and today considered a very important element of quality of life by each military branch.
Services and programs such as these are mainstays on today's military installations along with others that have an impact on quality of life in the armed forces and readiness. Howard Hopkins noted that the YMCA's Portsmouth Association in received the government's endorsement to place books in the navy's Portsmouth training ship and later received permission to hold religious meetings.
Formally, however, the YMCA dates its service to the early months of the Civil War when a handful of YMCA members sought to provide helpful services "by whatever means they could" to the troops at war.
In Novemberfifteen YMCA associations formally gathered to coordinate efforts to alleviate the suffering of the sick and wounded. To perform these tasks the group formed an organization it called the United States Christian Commission, whose purpose was to provide spiritual and physical comfort to soldiers.
When advised of the U. Christian Commission's plans, President Lincoln wrote to YMCA leaders of his support, stating, "I sincerely hope your plan may be as successful, as it is just and generous in conception. During its four years of operations during the Civil War the commission recruited an estimated volunteer "delegates" who served without pay in every theater of the war.
It was the nation's first large-scale civilian volunteer service corps. The Red Cross, which would become the preeminent agency for matters related to "relief," had not yet been created and the military chaplaincy was in its infancy. For those reasons, volunteers were recruited by the Christian Commission from many fields.
They served as surgeons, nurses, chaplains and chaplains' assistants, while others distributed emergency medical supplies, food and clothing.
They served on the battlefields with horse-drawn canteens, built and operated special diet kitchens in hospitals, brought books and prefabricated chapels to soldiers, taught enlisted men to read and write, maintained a hotel for soldiers on furlough and provided free meals.
Christian Commission distributed somecases of food, clothing and medical supplies, and a total of 12 million books, magazines and pamphlets. New programs and services were introduced, including the military's first recreational and sports programs and counseling services for military personnel.
In the years before that war, the YMCA had developed mobile canteens and recreational facilities and had broad expertise in service to the armed forces.
It was an expertise that would soon blossom into a massive program of morale and welfare services for the military on the home front and particularly overseas.
The YMCA assumed military responsibilities on a scale that had never been attempted by a nonprofit, community-based organization in the history of our nation and would never be matched again.
It was at the conclusion of that war that the military services began to institutionalize the massive human services work carried out by the YMCA.
This work the history sets forth one of the greatest achievements of peace in all the history of human warfare. The American Young Men's Christian Association in its welfare work served between four and five millions of American soldiers and sailors, at home and overseas.
As General Pershing has said, it conducted nine-tenths of the welfare work among the American forces in Europe. Moreover, alone among American welfare societies, this organization, first and last, ministered to not less than nineteen millions of the soldiers of the Allied Armies and extended its helpful activities to over five millions of prisoners of war.Most of the advances in technology at the time - cryptography, radar, battlefield communications - were due to military operations during World War II, and it was, in fact, government activities that led to the development of the Internet.
· The causes of World War I remain controversial. World War I began in the Balkans in late July and ended in November , leaving 17 million dead and 20 million wounded.
Scholars looking at the long-term seek to explain why two rival sets of powers – Germany and Austria-Hungary on the one hand, and Russia, France, and Great Britain on Polarization of Europe, – · July Crisis: The chain of events · Imperialismmonstermanfilm.com · In the public consciousness, World War I has often played second fiddle to its psychotic offspring.
The fascination with World War II has its own problems, but at the very least people are more aware of the facts and more inclined to investigate the origins of those monstermanfilm.com · The History of the First World War by David Stevenson Buy on Amazon Stevenson tackles vital elements of the war missing from more military accounts, and monstermanfilm.com · Seventy years after the United States dropped the world's first atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, its place in history remains monstermanfilm.com://monstermanfilm.com · Professor David Stevenson explains how the war came to an end, and why Germany accepted the harsh terms of the armistice.
Curator Dr Matthew Shaw, explores notions of patriotism, social cohesion, routine and propaganda, to ask how soldiers of World War One were able to psychologically cope with the monstermanfilm.com